High-Yield Biochemistry mnemonics
Bio-chemistry we know is the toughest of subjects in the field of medicine related to memorizing. This article will help you memorize this deadly subject in a fun learning way with the help of these High-Yield Biochemistry mnemonics.
B vitamin names High-Yield
“The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagious”:
In increasing order:
Essential amino acids High-Yield
“PVT. TIM HALL always argues, never tires”:
Always argues: the A is for Arg, not Asp.
‘Never tires’: T is not Tyr, but is both Thr and Trp.
Fasting state: branched-chain amino acids used by skeletal muscles
“Muscles LIVe fast”:
Folate deficiency: causes
A FOLIC DROP:
Folic acid antagonists
Low dietary intake
Infection with Giardia
Relative folate deficiency
Glycogen storage: Anderson’s (IV) vs. Cori’s (III) enzyme defect High-Yield
Otherwise, can’t really distinguish clinically.
Glycogen storage: names of types I through VI High-Yield
“Viagra Pills Cause AMajor Hardon”:
Glycolysis steps High-Yield
“Goodness Gracious, Father Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Pies”:
‘Did’, ‘By’ and ‘Pies’ tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-.
‘PrEPare’ tells location of PEP in the process.
Hypervitaminosis A: signs and symptoms High-Yield
“Increased Vitamin A makes you HARD”:
Really painful bones
Dry skin/ Drowsiness
Infantile Beriberi symptoms High-Yield
Great heartedness (dilated heart)
Alternatively: Get 5 of ’em with BERI: Breathless/ Big hearted, Eatless, Restless, Insomnia.
Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose
“In the Phasted State, Phosphorylate”:
The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low.
Type 1 glycogen storage disease High-Yield
Type 1 = one (Von), ie Von Giereke’s disease
Van den Bergh reaction (Jaundice test) High-Yield
“Indirect reacting bilirubin = Unconjugated bilirubin”:
Both start with vowels, so they go together: Indirect & Unconjugated.
Vitamin B3 (niacin, nicotinic acid) deficiency: pellagra High-Yield
The 3 D’s of pellagra:
Note vitamin B3 is the 3 D’s.
Vitamins: which are fat soluble High-Yield
Coagulation common pathway: factors in order High-Yield
10 + 5 – 2 = 13
Coagulation common pathway:
Factor X to Factor V to Factor II to Factor XIII
Fabry’s disease High-Yield
Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules/ Febrile episodes
Alpha galactosidase A deficiency/ Angiokeratomas
Burning pain in extremities/ BUN increased in serum/ Boys
YX genotype (male, X linked recessive)
Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of the shift to right High-Yield
“CADET, face right!”:
2,3-DPG (aka 2,3 BPG)
Porphyrias: acute intermittent porphyria symptoms High-Yield
Pain in abdomen
Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates, oral contraceptives, sulpha drugs)
Sickle cell disease pathophysiology
SICKle cell disease is due to a Substitution of the SICKsth amino acid of the B chain.
Vitamin K dependent cofactors High-Yield
“Several Tend To Nicely Stop Clots”:
Factor Seven, Ten, Two, Nine.
Protein S, Protein C.
“ABC of Adrenaline”:
Adrenaline–> activates Beta receptors–> increases Cyclic AMP
Insulin: function High-Yield
INsulIN stimulates 2 things to go
IN 2 cells: Potassium and Glucose.
BUN:creatinine elevation: causes High-Yield
Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition)
G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia High-Yield
Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole)
Antimalarial (eg: primaquine)
Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid, but not aspirin or acetaminophen)
Carbon monoxide: electron transport chain target
“CO blocks CO”:
Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO)
Citric acid cycle compounds High-Yield
“Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer?”:
DNA bond strength (nucleotides)
Strongest bonds are between Cytosine and Guanine, strong like Crazy Glue (3 H-bonds), whereas the A=T only have 2 H-bonds.
This is relevant to DNA replication, as the weaker A=T will be the site where RNA primer makes the initial break.
Electron transport chain: Rotenone’s site of action High-Yield
Rotenone is a site specific inhibitor of complex one.
Enzyme kinetics: competitive vs. non-competitive inhibition High-Yield
With Kompetitive inhibition: Km increases; no change in Vmax.
With Non-kompetitive inhibition: No change in Km; Vmax decreases.
Enzymes: classification High-Yield
“Over The HILL”:
Enzymes get reaction over the hill. See diagram.
Enzymes: competitive inhibitors High-Yield
“Competition is hard because we have to travel more kilometers (Km) with the same velocity”:
With competitive inhibitors, velocity remains same but Km increases
G protein type for respective receptors
“KISS and KICK till you’re SICK of SEX” (QISS and QIQ till you’re SIQ of SQS):
This gives the G-protein type (Gq, Gi, or Gs) for all the receptors. Receptors are in alphabetical order:
“Use both arms to HUG”:
These reactions occur in both cytoplasm and mitochondria.
Na/K pump: concentrations of Na vs. K on inside/outside of cell, pump action, number of molecules moved High-Yield
There is a HIgh K concentration INside the cell.
From this can deduce that the Na/K pump pumps K into cell and Na out of cell.
Alternatively: When I was learning this pump (circa 1992), a band that was “in” was Kris Kross, and a band that was “out” was “Sha Na
So pump moves K K (2 K) in and Na Na Na (3 Na) out.
Sadly, as infectious as their debut album was, Kris Kross can really no longer be classed as “in”.
Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity High-Yield
K+ and in each consist of 2 characters, so so 2 K+ are pumped in.
Na+ and out each consist of 3 characters, so 3 Na+ are pumped out.
Phenylketonuria: which enzyme is deficient High-Yield
PHenylketonuria is caused by a deficiency of:
Pompe’s disease: type High-Yield
“Police = Po + lys”:
Pompe’s disease is a lysosomal storage disease (alpha 1,4 glucosidase).
Pyruvate: products of complete oxidation High-Yield
“4 Naked Fun 3 Coeds + 1 Guy”:
Complete oxidation of pyruvate yields:
Tangier’s disease: hallmark
Hallmark is large orange tonsils.
Important clinical note: there is no increased risk of atherosclerosis, just like eating tangerenes.
These were all the mnemonics I could come up with for this tough subject, If you have any questions or useful information, add them in the comments section below
In the meantime here are some other