Pharmacology made ridiculously easy mnemonics

pharmacology made ridiculously easy mnemonics








600This article contains some pharmacology made ridiculously easy mnemonics for all medical students, especially those in their 3rd year going through this hell in the form of a subject name pharmacology.

  1. Sulfonamides: common characteristics SULFA:S-Steven-Johnson syndrome/ Skin rash / Solubility low
    U-Urine precipitation/ Useful for UTI
    L-Large spectrum (gram positives and negatives)
    F-Folic acids synthesis blocker (as well as synthesis of nucleic acids)
    A-Analog of PABA
  2. Diuretics: groups“Leak Over The CAN“:

    L-Loop diuretics
    O-Osmotics
    T-Thiazides
    C-Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    A-Aldosterone inhibitors
    N-Na (sodium) channel blockers

  3. Tuberculosis: treatment If you forget your TB drugs, you’ll

    die and might need a PRIEST“:

    P-Pyrazinamide
    R-Rifampin
    I-Isoniazid (INH)
    E-Ethambutol
    St-Streptomycin

  4. Aminoglycosides: common characteristics AMINO

  5. Active Against Aerobic gram negative
    Mechanism of resistance are Modifying enzymes
    Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 30S subunit
    Nephrotoxic
    Ototoxic
  6. Femara (Letrozole) Side Effects

Just Remember “FEMARA”

F-Fracture (Bone), Flushes (Hot)

E-Edema (Peripheral)

M-Memory impairment(Less Common)

A-Anxiety (Less Common)

R-Raised Sweating

A-Arterial thrombosis(very rare)

  1. Thalidomide: effect on cancer cells“Thalidomide
    makes the blood vessels hide“:
    Use thalidomide to stop cancer cells from growing new blood vessels.
  2. Carbamazepine (CBZ): useCBZ:
    C-Cranial Nerve V (trigeminal) neuralgia
    B-Bipolar disorder
    Z-Seizures
  3. Warfarin: interactionsACADEMIC QACS:
    A-Amiodarone
    C-Cimetidine
    A-Aspirin
    D-Dapsone
    E-Erythromycin
    M-Metronidazole
    I-Indomethacin
    C-Clofibrates
    Q-Quinidine
    A-Azapropazone
    C-Ciprofloxacin
    S-Statins
  4. Morphine: side-effects MORPHINE:

    M-Myosis
    O-Out of it (sedation)
    R-Respiratory depression
    P-Pneumonia (aspiration)
    H-Hypotension
    I-Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention)
    N-Nausea
    E-Emesis

  5. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA): side effectsTCA’S:

    T-Thrombocytopenia
    C-Cardiac (arrhythmia, MI, stroke)
    A-Anticholinergic (tachycardia, urinary retention, etc)
    S-Seizures

  6. Corticosteroids: adverse side effectsCUSHINGS BAD MD:

    C-Cataracts
    U-Up all night (sleep disturbances)
    S-Suppression of HPA axis
    H-Hypertension/ buffalo Hump
    I-Infections
    N-Necrosis (avascular)
    G-Gain weight
    S-Striae
    B-Bone loss (osteoporosis)
    A-Acne
    D-Diabetes
    M-Myopathy, moon faces
    D-Depression and emotional changes

  7. Microtubules: drugs that act on microtubules.“The

    MicroTubule Growth Voiding Chemicals”:

    T-Thiabendazole
    M-Mebendazole
    T-Taxol
    G-Griseofulvin
    V-Vincristine/ Vinblastine
    C-Colchicine
    BromoCRYPTine is a DOPamine agonist.

  8. Beta blockers: members“The NEPAL Prime

    M-Minister”:
    T-Timolol
    N-Nadolol
    E-Esmolol
    P-Pindolol
    A-Atenolol
    L-Labetalol
    P-Propranolol
    M-Metoprolol

  9. Insulin: mixing regular insulin and NPH“Not Ready

    Ready Now”:
    Air into NPH
    Air into Regular
    Draw up Regular
    Draw up NPH

  10. Parasympathetic vs. sympathetic neurotransmitters“No

    sympathy for a Pair of Aces”:

    Norepinephren is secreted in by the Sympathetic nervous system
    while Acetylcholine is secreted in the Parasympathetic nervous

  11. Benzodiazepines: 3 members that undergo extrahepatic metabolism

    “Outside The Liver”:

    O-Oxazepam
    T-Temazepam
    L-Lorazepam
    These undergo extrahepatic metabolism and do not form active metabolites.

  12. Guanethidine: mechanism Guanethidine prevents NE
    (norepinephrine) release.
  13. Opioids: mu receptor effects“MD CARES“:



M-Miosis
D-Dependency
C-Constipation
A-Analgesics
R-Respiratory depression
E-Euphoria
S-Sedation

  1. Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. betaABCD:

    Alpha = C
    Beta = Dilate.

  2. Beta 1 selective blockers“BEAM ONEup, Scotty”:

    Beta 1 blockers:
    E-Esmolol
    A-Atenolol
    M-Metropolol

  3. Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia“A goes with B“:

    Atropine used clinically to treat B

  4. Cancer drugs: time of action between DNA->mRNAABCDEF:
    A-Alkylating agents
    B-Bleomycin
    C-Cisplastin
    D-Dactinomycin/ Doxorubicin
    E-Etoposide
    F-Flutamide and other steroids or their antagonists (eg tamoxifen,
    leuprolide)
  5. Busulfan: featuresABCDEF:
    A-Alkylating agent
    B-Bone marrow suppression s/e
    C-CML indication
    D-Dark skin (hyperpigmentation) s/e
    E-Endrocrine insufficiency (adrenal) s/e
    F-Fibrosis (pulmonary) s/e
  6. Tricyclic antidepressants: members worth knowing“I have to
    hide, the CIAis after me”:
    C-Clomipramine
    I-Imipramine
    A-Amitrptyline
  7. Torsades de Pointes: drugs causingAPACHE:
    A-Amiodarone
    P-Procainamide
    A-Arsenium
    C-Cisapride
    H-Haloperidol
    E-Eritromycin
  8. Asthma drugs: leukotriene inhibitor actionzAfirlukast:
    Antagonist of lipoxygenase
    zIlueton: Inhibitor of LT receptor
  9. Propranolol and related ‘-olol’ drugs: usage“olol”
    is just two backwards lower case b’s.
    Backward b’s stand for “beta blocker”.
    Beta blockers include acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol,
    oxprenolol, propranolol.
  10. Beta blockers: B1 selective vs. B1-B2 non-selectiveA
    through N: B1 selective: Acebutalol, Atenolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol.
    O through Z: B1, B2 non-selective:Pindolol, Propanalol, Timolol.
  11. Antirheumatic agents (disease modifying): membersCHAMP:
    C-Cyclophosphamide
    H-Hydroxycloroquine and choloroquinine
    A-Auranofin and other gold compounds
    M-Methotrexate
    P-Penicillamine
  12. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects,
    contraindications, interactionsHMG–CoA:
    Side effects:
    H-Hepatotoxicity
    M-Myositis [aka rhabdomyolysis] · Contraindications:
    G-Girl during pregnancy/ Growing children
    · Interactions:
    C-Coumarin/ Cyclosporine
  13. Serotonin syndrome: componentsCauses HARM:
    H-Hyperthermia
    A-Autonomic instability (delirium)
    R-Rigidity
    M-Myoclonus
  14. Therapeutic index: formulaTILE:
    TI= LD50 / ED50
  15. Antiarrhythmics: class III membersBIAS:
    B-Bretylium
    I-Ibutilide
    A-Amiodarone
    S-Sotalol
  16. MAOIs: indicationsMAOI‘S:
    M-Melancholic [classic name for atypical depression] A-Anxiety
    O-Obesity disorders [anorexia, bulemia] I-Imagined illnesses [hypochondria] S-Social phobias
  17. K+ increasing agentsK-BANK:
    K-K-sparing diuretic
    B-Beta blocker
    A-ACEI
    N-NSAID
    K-Ksupplement
  18. Ribavirin: indicationsRIBAvirin:
    R-RSV
    I-Influenza B
    A-Arenaviruses (Lassa, Bolivian, etc.)
  19. SIADH-inducing drugsABCD:
    A-Analgesics: opioids, NSAIDs
    B-Barbiturates
    C-Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine
    D-Diuretic (thiazide)
  20. Diuretics: thiazides: indications“CHIC to use
    thiazides”:
    C-CHF
    H-Hypertension
    I-Insipidous
    C-Calcium calculi
  21. Parkinsonism: drugsSALAD:
    S-Selegiline
    A-Anticholinenergics (trihexyphenidyl, benzhexol, ophenadrine)
    L-L-Dopa + peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (carbidopa, benserazide)
    A-Amantadine
    D-Dopamine postsynaptic receptor agonists (bromocriptine, lisuride,
    pergolide)
  22. Thrombolytic agentsUSA:
    U-Urokinase
    S-Streptokinase
    A-Alteplase (tPA)
  23. Morphine: effects at mu receptorPEAR:
    P-Physical dependence
    E-Euphoria
    A-Analgesia
    R-Respiratory depression
  24. Morphine: effectsMORPHINES:
    M-Miosis
    O-Orthostatic hypotension
    R-Respiratory depression
    P-Pain supression
    H-Histamine release/ Hormonal alterations
    I-Increased ICT
    N-Nausea
    E-Euphoria
    S-Sedation
  25. Anticholinergic side effects“Know the ABCD’Sof
    anticholinergic side effects”:
    A-Anorexia
    B-Blurry vision
    D-Constipation/ Confusion
    D-Dry Mouth
    D-Sedation/ Stasis of urine
  26. Antiarrhythmics: classification I to IVMBA College
    In order of class I to IV:
    M-Membrane stabilizers (class I)
    B-Beta blockers
    A-Action potential widening agents
    C-Calcium channel blockers
  27. Teratogenic drugs“W/ TERATOgenic”:
    W-Warfarin
    T-Thalidomide
    E-Epileptic drugs: phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine
    R-Retinoid
    A-ACE inhibitor
    T-Third element: lithium
    O-OCP and other hormones (eg danazol)
  28. Epilepsy types, drugs of choice“Military General
    Attacked Weary Fighters Pronouncing ‘Veni
    Vedi Veci’ After Crushing Enemies”:
    Epilepsy types:
    M-Myoclonic
    G-Grand mal
    A-Atonic
    W-West syndrome
    F-Focal
    P-Petit mal (absence)
    · Respective drugsy:
    V-Valproate
    V-Valproate
    VValproate
    A-ACTH
    C-Carbamazepine
    E-Ethosuximide



  29. Pulmonary infiltrations inducing drugs“Go BAN Me!”:
    Go-Gold
    B-Bleomycin/ Busulphan/ BCNU
    A-Amiodarone/ Acyclovir/ Azathioprine
    N-Nitrofurantoin
    M-Melphalan/ Methotrexate/ Methysergide
  30. Respiratory depression inducing drugs“STOP
    breathing”:
    S-Sedatives and hypnotics
    T-Trimethoprim
    O-Opiates
    P-Polymyxins
  31. Benzodiazapines: ones not metabolized by the liver (safe to use in
    liver failure)LOT:
    L-Lorazepam
    O-Oxazepam
    T-Temazepam
  32. TB: antibiotics usedSTRIPE:
    St-STreptomycin
    R-Rifampicin
    I-Isoniazid
    P-Pyrizinamide
    E-Ethambutol
  33. Vigabatrin: mechanismVi-GABA–Tr–In:
    Via GABATransferase Inhibition
  34. Propythiouracil (PTU): mechanismIt inhibits PTU:
    P-Peroxidase/ Peripheral deiodination
    T-Tyrosine iodination
    U-Union (coupling)
  35. Beta-blockers: nonselective beta-blockers“TimPinches
    His Nasal Problem” (because he has a runny nose…):
    Tim-Timolol
    Pin-Pindolol
    His-Hismolol
    Na-Naldolol
    Pro-Propranolol
  36. Enoxaparin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action,
    monitoringEnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa.
    Monitor Xaconcentration, rather than APTT.
  37. Nicotinic effectsMTWTF(days of week):
    M-Mydriasis/ Muscle cramps
    T-Tachycardia
    W-Weakness
    T-Twitching
    H-Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia
    F-Fasiculation
  38. Muscarinic effectsSLUG BAM:
    S-Salivation/ Secretions/ Sweating
    L-Lacrimation
    U-Urination
    G-Gastrointestinal upset
    B-Bradycardia/ Bronchoconstriction/ Bowel movement
    A-Abdominal cramps/ Anorexia
    M-Miosis
  39. Hypertension: treatmentABCD:
    ACE inhibitors/ AngII antagonists (sometimes Alpha agonists
    also)
    B-Beta blockers
    C-Calcium antagonists
    D-Diuretics (sometimes vasoDilators also)
  40. Phenytoin: adverse effectsPHENYTOIN:
    P-P-450 interactions
    H-Hirsutism
    EEnlarged gums
    N-Nystagmus
    Y-Yellow-browning of skin
    T-Teratogenicity
    O-Osteomalacia
    I-Interference with B12 metabolism (hence anemia)
    N-Neuropathies: vertigo, ataxia, headache
  41. Gynaecomastia-causing drugsDISCOS:
    D-Digoxin
    I-Isoniazid
    S-Spironolactone
    C-Cimetidine
    O-Oestrogens
    S-Stilboestrol
  42. Amiodarone: action, side effects6 P’s:
    P-Prolongs action potential duration
    P-Photosensitivity
    P-Pigmentation of skin
    P-Peripheral neuropathy
    PPulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis
    P-Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is inhibited -> hypothyroidis
  43. Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
    Picture diabeticand asthmatickids riding away on a cart
    that rolls on pin
    Pindolol and Carteolol have high and moderate ISA respectively,
    making them acceptable for use in some diabetics or asthmatics despite the fact that they are non-seletive beta blockers.
  44. Physostigmine vs. neostigmineLMNOP:
    L-Lipid soluble
    M-Miotic
    N-Natural
    O-Orally absorbed well
    P-Physostigmine
    Neostigmine, on the contrary, is:
    Water soluble
    Used in myesthenia gravis
    Synthetic
    Poor oral absorption
  45. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: members“PITof
    despair”:
    P-Phenelzine
    I-Isocarboxazid
    T-Tranylcypromine
    A pit of despair, since MAOs treat depression.
  46. Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancyMCAT:
    M-Metronidazole
    C-Chloramphenicol
    A-Aminoglycoside
    T-Tetracycline
  47. Etoposide: action, indications, side effect“eTOPoside”:
    Action:
    Inhibits TOPoisomerase II
    · Indications:
    T-Testicular carcinoma
    O-Oat cell carcinoma of lung
    P-Prostate carcinoma
    · Side effect:
    Affects TOPof your head, causing alopecia
  48. Antimuscarinics: members, action“Inhibits Parasympathetic
    And Sweat”:
    I-Ipratropium
    P-Pirenzepine
    A-Atropine
    S-Scopolamine
    Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in
    sympathetic.
  49. Lithium: side effectsLITHIUM:
    L-Leukocytes Increased (leukocytosis)
    T-Tremors
    H-Hypothyroidism
    I-Increased Urine
    M-Moms beware (teratogenic)
  50. Osmotic diuretics: membersGUM:
    G-Glycerol
    U-Urea
    M-Mannitol
  51. Narcotics: side effects“SCRAM if you see a drug
    dealer”:
    S-Synergistic CNS depression with other drugs
    C-Constipation
    R-Respiratory depression
    A-Addiction
    M-Miosis
  52. Benzodiazepines: antidote“Ben is off with the
    flu“:
    Benzodiazepine effects off with Flu
  53. SSRIs: side effectsSSRI:
    S-Serotonin syndrome
    S-Stimulate CNS
    R-Reproductive disfunctions in male
    I-Insomnia
  54. Depression: 5 drugs causing itPROMS:
    P-Propranolol
    R-Reserpine
    O-Oral contraceptives
    M-Methyldopa
    S-Steroids
  55. Sex hormone drugs: male“Feminine Males Need
    Testosterone“:
    F-Fluoxymesterone
    M-Methyltestosterone
    N-Nandrolone
    Testosterone
  56. Ca++ channel blockers: usesCA++ MASH:
    C-Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF
    A-Angina
    M-Migranes
    A-Atrial flutter, fibrillation
    S-Supraventricular tachycardia
    H-Hypertension
  57. Benzodiazepenes: drugs which decrease their metabolism“I‘m Overly Calm”:
    I-Isoniazid
    O-Oral contraceptive pills
    C-Cimetidine
  58. Warfarin: metabolismSLOW:
    Has a slowonset of action.
    · A quicK Vitamin K antagonist, though.
    S-Small lipid-soluble molecule
    L-Liver: site of action
    O-Oral route of administration.
    W-Warfarin



  59. Opioids: effectsBAD AMERICANS:
    B-Bradycardia & hypotension
    A-Anorexia
    D-Diminished pupilary size
    A-Analgesics
    M-Miosis
    E-Euphoria
    R-Respiratory depression
    I-Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction)
    C-Constipation
    A-Ameliorate cough reflex
    N-Nausea and vomiting
    S-Sedations
  60. Tetracycline: teratogenicityTEtracycline is a
    TE-TEratogen that causes staining of
    TEeth in the newborn.
  61. Myasthenia gravis: edrophonium vs. pyridostigmineeDrophonium
    is for D
    pyRIDostigmine is to get RIDof symptoms.
  62. Narcotic antagonistsThe Narcotic Antagonists
    are NAloxone and NA
    · Important clinically to treat narcotic overdose.
  63. Inhalation anestheticsSHINE:
    S-Sevoflurane
    H-Halothane
    I-Isoflurane
    N-Nitrous oxide
    E-Enflurane
  64. Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs“PM PMT” as
    in Pre Medical Test in the PM:
    P-Procarbazine
    M-Metronidazole
    PMT-Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan).
  65. Delerium-causing drugsACUTE CHANGE IN MS:
    A-Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)
    C-Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)
    U-Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)
    T-Theophylline
    E-Ethanol
    C-Corticosteroids
    H-H2 blockers
    A-Antiparkinsonian drugs
    N-Narcotics (esp. mepridine)
    G-Geriatric psychiatric drugs
    E-ENT drugs
    I-Insomnia drugs
    N-NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)
    M-Muscle relaxants
    S-Seizure medicines
  66. Direct sympathomimetic catecholaminesDINED:
    D-Dopamine
    I-Isoproterenol
    N-Norepinephrine
    E-Epinephrine
    D-Dobutamine
  67. Nitrofurantoin: major side effectsNitroFurAntoin:
    N-Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy)
    F-Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis)
    A-Anemia (hemolytic anemia)
  68. Methyldopa: side effectsMETHYLDOPA:
    M-Mental retardation
    E-Electrolyte imbalance
    T-Tolerance
    H-Headache/ Hepatotoxicity
    psYcological upset
    L-Lactation in female
    D-Dry mouth
    O-Oedema
    P-Parkinsonism
    A-Anaemia (haemolytic)
  69. Steroids: side effectsBECLOMETHASONE:
    B-Buffalo hump
    E-Easy bruising
    C-Cataracts
    L-Larger appetite
    O-Obesity
    M-Moonface
    E-Euphoria
    T-Thin arms & legs
    H-Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia
    A-Avascular necrosis of femoral head
    S-Skin thinning
    O-Osteoporosis
    N-Negative nitrogen balance
    E-Emotional liability
  70. Sodium valproate: side effectsVALPROATE:
    V-Vomiting
    A-Alopecia
    L-Liver toxicity
    P-Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia
    R-Retention of fats (weight gain)
    O-Oedema (peripheral oedema)
    A-Appetite increase
    T-Tremor
    E-Enzyme inducer (liver)
  71. Lithium: side effectsLITH:
    L-Leukocytosis
    I-Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria] T-Tremor/ Teratogenesis
    H-Hypothyroidism
  72. Lead poisoning: presentationABCDEFG:
    A-Anemia
    B-Basophilic stripping
    C-Colicky pain
    D-Diarrhea
    E-Encephalopathy
    F-Foot drop
    G-Gum (lead line)
  73. Beta-blockers: main contraindications, cautionsABCDE:
    A-Asthma
    B-Block (heart block)
    C-COPD
    D-Diabetes mellitus
    E-Electrolyte (hyperkalemia)
  74. Metabolism enzyme inducers“Randy’s Black Car
    Goes Putt Putt and Smokes“:
    R-Rifampin
    B-Barbiturates
    C-Carbamazepine
    G-Grisoefulvin
    P-Phenytoin
    P-Phenobarb
  75. Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effectsIf you know
    these, you will be “LESS DUMB“:
    L-Lacrimation
    E-Excitation of nicotinic synapses
    S-Salivation
    S-Sweating
    D-Diarrhea
    U-Urination
    M-Micturition
    B-Bronchoconstriction



  76. Routes of entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins enter body“Stick
    it, Sniff it, Suck it, Soak it”:
    Stick = Injection
    Sniff = inhalation
    Suck = ingestion
    Soak = absorption
  77. Hepatic necrosis: drugs causing focal to massive necrosis“Very
    A-Angry Hepatocytes”:
    V-Valproic acid
    A-Acetaminophen
    H-Halothane
  78. Bleomycin: action“Bleo–Mycin Blows
    MyDNA to bits”:
    Bleomycin works by fragmenting DNA (blowing it to bits).
    MyDNA signals that its used for cancer (targeting self cells).
  79. Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location“You have 1 heart
    and 2 lungs“:
    Beta-1are therefore primarily on heart.
    Beta-2 primarily on lungs.
  80. Beta-blockers: side effects“BBCLoses Viewers
    In Rochedale”:
    B-Bradycardia
    B-Bronchoconstriction
    C-Claudication
    L-Lipids
    V-Vivid dreams & nightmares
    I- -ve Inotropic action
    R-Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia
  81. Cisplatin: major side effect, action“Ci-Splat–In“:
    Major side effect: Splat(vomiting sound)–vomiting so severe that
    anti-nausea drug needed.
    Action: Goes Into the DNA strand.
  82. Ipratropium: actionAtropine is buried in the middle:
    iprAtropium, so it behaves like Atropine.

 

These are all the Pharmacology made ridiculously easy mnemonics for now. tune in for more. here are some mnemonics on




general surgery in the meantime.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here