Features of The Body A Guide for Occupants PDF
The Body A Guide for Occupants PDF-NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • Bill Bryson, bestselling author of A Short History of Nearly Everything, takes us on a head-to-toe tour of the marvel that is the human body—with a new afterword for this edition.
Bill Bryson once again proves himself to be an incomparable companion as he guides us through the human body—how it functions, its remarkable ability to heal itself, and (unfortunately) the ways it can fail. Full of extraordinary facts (your body made a million red blood cells since you started reading this) and irresistible Brysonesque anecdotes, The Body will lead you to a deeper understanding of the miracle that is life in general and you in particular.
As Bill Bryson writes, “We pass our existence within this wobble of flesh and yet take it almost entirely for granted.” The Body will cure that indifference with generous doses of wondrous, compulsively readable facts and information. As addictive as it is comprehensive, this is Bryson at his very best, a must-read owner’s manual for everybody.
THE HEART IS the most misperceived of our organs. For a start, it looks nothing like the traditional symbol associated with Valentine’s Day and lovers’ initials carved into tree trunks and the like. (That symbol ﬁrst appeared, as if from out of nowhere, in paintings from northern Italy in the early fourteenth century, but no one knows what inspired it.) Nor is the heart where we place our right hand during patriotic moments; it is more centrally located in the chest than that. Most curious of all, perhaps, is that we make it the emotional seat of our being, as when we declare that we love someone with all our heart or profess a broken heart when they abandon us. Don’t misunderstand me. The heart is a wondrous organ and fully deserving of our praise and gratitude, but it is not invested even slightly in our emotional well-being.
That’s a good thing. The heart has no time for distractions. It is the most single-minded thing within you. It has just one job to do, and it does it supremely well: it beats. Slightly more than once every second, about 100,000 times a day, as many as 3.5 billion times in a lifetime, it rhythmically pulses to push blood through your body—and these aren’t gentle thrusts. They are jolts powerful enough to send blood spurting up to three meters if the aorta is severed.
With such an unrelenting work rate, it is a miracle that most hearts last as long as they do. Every hour your heart dispenses around 70 gallons of blood. That’s 1,680 gallons in a day—more gallons pushed through you in a day than you are likely to put in your car in a year. The heart must pump with enough force not merely to send blood to your outermost extremities but to help bring it all the way back again. If you are standing, your heart is roughly four feet above your feet, so there’s a lot of gravity to overcome on the return trip. Imagine squeezing a pump the size of a grapefruit with enough force to move a ﬂuid four feet up a tube. Now do that again once every second or so, around the clock, unceasingly, for decades, and see if you don’t feel a bit tired. It has been calculated (and goodness knows how, it must be said) that during the course of a lifetime the heart does an amount of work sufﬁcient to lift a one-ton object 150 miles into the air. It is a truly remarkable implement. It just doesn’t care about your love life.
For all it does, the heart is a surprisingly modest thing. It weighs less than a pound and is divided into four simple chambers: two atria and two ventricles. Blood enters through the atria (Latin for “entry rooms”) and exits via the ventricles (from another Latin word for “chambers”). The heart is not really one pump but two: one that sends blood to the lungs and one that sends it around the body. The output of the two must be in balance, every single time, for it all to work correctly. Of all the blood pumped out of your heart, the brain takes 15 percent, but actually the greatest amount, 20 percent, goes to the kidneys. The journey of blood around your body takes about ﬁfty seconds to complete. Curiously, the blood passing through the chambers of the heart does nothing for the heart itself. The oxygen that nourishes it arrives via the coronary arteries, in exactly the way oxygen reaches other organs.
The two phases of a heartbeat are known as the systole (when the heart contracts and pushes blood out into the body) and diastole (when it relaxes and reﬁlls). The difference between these two is your blood pressure. The two numbers in a blood pressure reading—let’s say 120/80, or “120 over 80” when spoken—simply measure the highest and lowest pressures your blood vessels experience with each heart-beat. The ﬁrst, higher number is the systolic pressure; the second, the diastolic. The numbers speciﬁcally measure how many millimeters of mercury is pushed up a calibrated tube.
Keeping every part of the body supplied with sufﬁcient quantities of blood at all times is a tricky business. Every time you stand up, roughly a pint and a half of your blood tries to drain downward, and your body has to somehow overcome the dead pull of gravity. To manage this, your veins contain valves that stop blood from ﬂow-ing backward, and the muscles in your legs act as pumps when they contract, helping blood in the lower body get back to the heart. To contract, however, they need to be in motion. That’s why it’s important to get up and move around regularly. On the whole, the body manages these challenges pretty well.
“For healthy people there is a less than 20 percent difference between blood pressure at the shoulder and at the ankle,” Siobhan Loughna, a lecturer in anatomy at the University of Nottingham Medical School, told me one day. “It’s really quite remarkable how the body sorts that out.”
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Description of The Body A Guide for Occupants PDF
The Body A Guide for Occupants PDF is one of the best-known books on the subject of basic medical sciences. This book covers all the cases and phenomenons a student and professional doctor might be up against in their whole life. Master this book and you will be of prime help in solving cases of diseases that are difficult to treat. Make a difference. Download Now.
About Bill Bryson
Dimensions and Characters of The Body A Guide for Occupants PDF
- ASIN : B07M82PNSX
- Publisher : Anchor (October 15, 2019)
- Publication date : October 15, 2019
- Language : English
- File size : 62458 KB
- Text-to-Speech : Enabled
- Screen Reader : Supported
- Enhanced typesetting : Enabled
- X-Ray : Enabled
- Word Wise : Enabled
- Print length : 478 pages
- Lending : Not Enabled
- Book Name: The Body A Guide for Occupants PDF
ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR: THE WASHINGTON POST • FINANCIAL TIMES • THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS • BOOKPAGE • THE BOSTON GLOBE
“Glorious. . . . Having described the physical nature of our world and beyond, from the atomic to the intergalactic, in The Body [Bryson] now turns inward to explain—in his lucid, amusing style—what we’re made of. . . . Astonishing. . . . You will marvel at the brilliance and vast weirdness of your design.” —The Washington Post
“Delightful . . . reveals the thousands of rarely acknowledged tasks our body takes care of as we go about our day. . . . Informative, entertaining and often gross (kissing, according to one study, transfers up to one billion bacteria from one mouth to another, along with 0.2 micrograms of food bits). . . . Bryson, who gives off a Cronkite-like trustworthy vibe, is good at allaying fears and busting myths.” —The New York Times Book Review
“Bryson is a master explainer, with a gift for the pithy simile and all-encompassing metaphor. . . . Mr. Bryson’s account is enlivened by his excellent command of the history of medicine. . . . Brisk, provocative and entertaining throughout.” —The Wall Street Journal
“Bryson launches himself into the wilderness of the human anatomy armed with his characteristic thoroughness and wit. . . .This book is full of such arresting factoids and, like a douser hunting water, Bryson is adept at finding the bizarre and the arcane in his subject matter. . . . Amazing.” —USA Today
“A witty, informative immersion. . . . The Body—a delightful, anecdote-propelled read—proves one of his most ambitious yet, as he leads us on a head-to-toe tour of a physique that’s terra incognita to many of us. . . . Playful, lucid. . . . [Bryson] cover[s] a remarkably large swathe of human corporeal and cerebral experience.” —The Boston Globe
“A directory of wonders. . . . Extraordinary. . . . A tour of the minuscule; it aims to do for the human body what his A Short History of Nearly Everything did for science. . . . Wry, companionable, avuncular and always lucid . . . [The Body] could stand as an ultimate prescription for life.” —The Guardian
“A delightful tour guide. . . . Bryson’s stroll through human anatomy, physiology, evolution, and illness (diabetes, cancer, infections) is instructive, accessible, and entertaining.” —Booklist, starred review
“Amusingly informative.” —Forbes
“A pleasing, entertaining sojourn into the realm of what makes us tick.” —Kirkus Reviews
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