BRS Neuroanatomy 5th Latest edition Free PDF Book Download

BRS Neuroanatomy

This revised edition of the BRS Neuroanatomy prepares students for both courses and the USMLE Step 1. Written in the popular Board Review Series outline format, this text presents the essentials of human Neuroanatomy in the form of concise descriptions and full-color illustrations. USMLE-style questions at the end of each chapter emphasize board-relevant information and allow for self-testing to confirm strengths and uncover areas of weakness. The 100 question comprehensive exam at the end of the book is a great prep tool for the actual exam!

You will also discover:

NEW! Full-color design, illustrations, and tables summarize information for convenient review
Over 550 USMLE-style questions, answers, and rationales both electronically and in print to reinforce your anatomy review
Clinical correlations to emphasize connections between anatomical knowledge and clinical medicine
End-of-chapter summaries which provide a quick review of key concepts
A companion website offers the eBook, image bank, and an interactive question bank with all the questions from the book for engaging, effective test preparation!

Description of the Book

BRS Neuroanatomy (Board review series) requires no authentication in explaining the amount of success it can provide for students taking their exams in the shortest of times. 86 out of 100 students said this version is the best book to study for exams if you want to have a review or are too late to pass using any long book. The BRS Neuroanatomy series has been specifically designed for students to Ace their exams within the last week or even days if they have already covered their course. You can take a look at all the latest editions of the BRS series at

Table of Contents

1. Gross Anatomy of the Brain 1

Objectives 1
I. Introduction 1
II. Divisions of the Brain 1
III. Atlas of the Brain and Brainstem 10
Review Test 22

2. Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid 24

Objectives 24
I. Meninges 24
II. Ventricles 28
III. Cerebrospinal Fluid 30
IV. Hydrocephalus 30
V. Meningitis 31
VI. Herniation 32
VII. Circumventricular Organs 34
Review Test 36

3. Blood Supply of the Central Nervous System 39

Objectives 39
I. Arteries of the Spinal Cord 39
II. Venous Drainage of the Spinal Cord 40
III. Arteries of the Brain 41
IV. Cerebral Arterial Circle (of Willis) 45
V. Meningeal Arteries 45
VI. Veins of the Brain 45
VII. Venous Dural Sinuses 46
VIII. Angiography 48
IX. Intracranial Hemorrhage 52
Review Test 54

4. Development of the Nervous System 58

Objectives 58
I. Overview 58
II. Development of the Neural Tube 58
III. Neural Crest 59
IV. Placodes 61
V. Stages of Neural Tube Development 61
VI. Spinal Cord (Medulla Spinalis) 63
VII. Medulla oblongata (Myelencephalon) 64
VIII. Metencephalon 66
IX. Mesencephalon (Midbrain) 67
X. Development of the Diencephalon, Optic Structures, and Hypophysis 68
XI. Development of the Telencephalon 70
XII. Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System 71
Review Test 77

5. Neurohistology 79

Objectives 79
I. Overview 79
II. Neurons 79
III. Neuroglia 82
IV. Nerve Cell Degeneration and Regeneration 86
V. Axonal Transport 87
VI. Capillaries of the Central Nervous System 87
VII. Sensory Receptors 89
Review Test 91

6. Spinal Cord 93

Objectives 93
I. Introduction 93
II. External Morphology 93
III. Internal Morphology 98
IV. Myotatic Reflex 101
Review Test 102

7. Tracts of the Spinal Cord 104

Objectives 104
I. Ascending Tracts 104
II. Descending Tracts 109
III. Integrative Pathways 111
IV. Clinical Correlations 112
Review Test 114
Contents xi

8. Lesions of the Spinal Cord 117

Objectives 117
I. Lower Motor Neuron Lesions 117
II. Upper Motor Neuron Lesions (UMns) 119
III. Sensory Pathway Lesions 119
IV. Peripheral Nervous System Lesions 120
V. Combined Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Lesions 120
VI. Combined Motor and Sensory Lesions 121
VII. Intervertebral Disk Herniation 124
Review Test 125

9. Brainstem 129

Objectives 129
I. Introduction 129
II. Medulla Oblongata (Myelencephalon) 129
III. Pons 134
IV. Mesencephalon (Midbrain) 138
V. Corticobulbar (Corticonuclear) Fibers 142
Review Test 143

10. Cranial Nerves 145

Objectives 145
I. Introduction 145
II. Nervus Terminalis (NT; Cranial Nerve 0) 145
III. Olfactory Nerve (CN I) 145
IV. Optic Nerve (CN II) 146
V. Oculomotor Nerve (CN III) 148
VI. Trochlear Nerve (CN IV) 149
VII. Trigeminal Nerve (CN V) 150
VIII. Abducent Nerve (CN VI) 151
IX. Facial Nerve (CN VII) 151
X. Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII) 154
XI. Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX) 154
XII. Vagal Nerve (CN X) 155
XIII. Accessory Nerve (CN XI) 156
XIV. Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII) 157
Review Test 159

11. Trigeminal System 162

Objectives 162
I. Trigeminal Nerve (CN V) 162
II. Ascending Trigeminothalamic Tracts 163
III. Trigeminal Sensory Nuclei 165
IV. Trigeminocerebellar Fibers 166
V. Trigeminal Reflexes 167
VI. Clinical Correlations 168
Review Test 170

12. Lesions of the Brainstem 172

Objectives 172
I. Introduction 172
II. Vascular Lesions of the Medulla 172
III. Vascular Lesions of the Pons 173
IV. Lesions of the Midbrain 175
V. Acoustic Neuroma (Schwannoma) 176
VI. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia 177
VII. Jugular Foramen (Vernet) Syndrome 177
VIII. Subclavian Steal Syndrome 178
Review Test 179

13. Diencephalon: Thalamus and Hypothalamus 183

Objectives 183
I. Introduction: The Thalamus 183
II. Boundaries of the Thalamus 183
III. Primary Thalamic Nuclei and their Major Connections 184
IV. Blood Supply of the Thalamus 187
V. Internal Capsule 187
VI. Blood Supply of the Internal Capsule 188
VII. Clinical Correlations 188
VIII. Overview: The Hypothalamus 189
IX. Surface Anatomy of the Hypothalamus 189
X. Hypothalamic Regions and Nuclei 189
XI. Major Hypothalamic Connections 192
XII. Major Fiber Systems 194
XIII. Functional Considerations 195
XIV. Clinical Correlations 196
Review Test 197

14. Auditory System 202

Objectives 202
I. Introduction 202
II. Outer, Middle, and Inner Ear 202
III. Auditory Pathway 204
IV. Efferent Cochlear (Olivocochlear) Bundle 206
V. Hearing Defects 206
VI. Tuning Fork Tests 207
VII. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (Baer) 207
Review Test 209

15. Vestibular System 211

Objectives 211
I. Introduction 211
II. Labyrinth 211
III. Vestibular Pathways 213
IV. Efferent Vestibular Connections 214
V. Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus 214
VI. Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes 215
VII. Decerebrate and Decorticate Rigidity 216
VIII. Clinical Correlations 216
Review Test 218

16. Visual System 220

Objectives 220
I. Introduction 220
II. The Retina 220
III. Visual Pathway 224
IV. Pupillary Light Reflexes and Pathway 225
V. Pupillary Dilation Pathway 227
VI. The Convergence–Accommodation Reaction 227
VII. Centers for Ocular Motility 228
VIII. Clinical Correlations 229
Review Test 232

17. Olfactory, Gustatory, and Limbic Systems 236

Objectives 236
I. Olfactory System 236
II. Gustatory System 237
III. Limbic System 239
Review Test 245

18. Basal Nuclei and the Extrapyramidal Motor System 249

Objectives 249
I. Basal Nuclei 249
II. Extrapyramidal Motor System 249
Review Test 256

19. Cerebellum 258

Objectives 258
I. Overview 258
II. Major Divisions of the Cerebellum 258
III. Cerebellar Cortex 260
IV. Major Cerebellar Pathways 262
V. Cerebellar Dysfunction 264
VI. Cerebellar Lesions 264
Review Test 266

20. Autonomous Nervous System 268

Objectives 268
I. Overview 268
II. Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System 268
III. Visceral Afferent Fibers and Pain 272
IV. Autonomic Innervation of Selected Organs 273
V. Clinical Correlations 275
Review Test 276

21. Neurotransmitters and Pathways 278

Objectives 278
I. Introduction 278
II. Acetylcholine 279
III. Dopamine 280
IV. Norepinephrine (Noradrenalin) 281
V. Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) 282
VI. Opioid Peptides 283
VII. Nonopioid Neuropeptides 284
VIII. Amino Acids 284
IX. Nitric Oxide 287
X. Functional and Clinical Correlations 287
Review Test 289

22. Cerebral Cortex 293

Objectives 293
I. Overview 293
II. Neocortex 293
III. Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex 294
IV. Cerebral Dominance 299
V. Split-Brain Syndrome 301
VI. Blood Supply to the Major Functional Cortical Areas 302
VII. Apraxia 303
VIII. Aphasia 304
IX. Dysprosodies 305

BRS Neuroanatomy

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